A bit of both. Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. The maximum calculated yield is 1.4 g. What is the percentage yield of this reaction? Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. © 1943 Wiley This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined. These factors are not same for all crops but variation exists. Crop growth rate is a measure of the increase in size, mass or number of crops over a period of time. The FAO report yield values as the national average for any given year; this is calculated by diving total crop output (in kilograms or tonnes) by the area of land used to grow a given crop (in hectares). 1 mole of salicylic acid gives 1 mole of aspirin. It is weighted by the commodity prices. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. 1. In these trends we see large regional differences in this yield-land use trade-off. Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. Crop yield can also refer to … This is taken from World Bank (2008) – World Development Report (2008): Agriculture for Development. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. An average yield of 1,200 dozen (14,400 pounds/ears) can be expected from a cultivated row farm acre. The increase can be plotted as a logarithmic or exponential curve in many cases. Ciencia e investigación agraria. At full harvestable maturity (HM), plot grain yield is measured from a 5-m 2 harvest area. Today, the world can produce almost three-times as much cereal from a given area of land as it did in 1961. It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. Available online. Harvest index is defined as the pounds of grain divided by the total pounds of above ground biomass (stover plus grain). Select the purchase grain yield, plant height, maturity, and genetic pedigree. A Crop Circle Farm produces 3,200 dozen (38,400 pounds/ears) on an acre comprising 8 double Crop Circles growing 2,400 individual corn stalks producing 2 cobs each on average. Product yield measures the output as an indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). Crops in this area are almost 100 percent rain fed (Stutley, 2008). Specifically, year-to-year variation of soybean shows the highest correlation with the drought index, followed by … 3.3. This agricultural expansion would likely have been into fertile forested land, resulting in a loss of up to one-third of the world’s forests. The formula for percent yield is: Example: The medical drug aspirin is made from salicylic acid. The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961. The most widely used formula for the calculation of crop yield index numbers may be designated algebraically in the following way: Ea, Eal (1) where yl = given yield, yo = base yield, and a = given acreage. Washington, DC: World Bank. The challenge of agricultural sustainability has become more intense in recent years with the sharp rise in the cost of food and energy, climate change, water scarcity, degradation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity, the financial crisis and expected increase in population. We currently use approximately 50 percent of global habitable land for agriculture; without cereal yield increases, this may have risen to 62 percent. The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities by country over this period. A crop yield will be higher when its harvest index will be higher. What caused this significant drive in yield improvements? License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. A chemist making geranyl formate uses 375 g of starting material and collects 417g of purified product. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Data from 1961 onwards is taken from FAOstat; database online here. Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. defined as the relative area required by sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops (Mead and Willey, 1980). Most European, American (both North and Latin American), Asian and Pacific countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production. Using Table 1 determine the grain weight for the crop concerned (C) Yield in t/ha = (A × B × C) / 10,000; For example, to calculate a wheat yield where: Average number of heads/pods per m 2 is 220 (A) Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79 Crop-yield index= 100X -= 125 240 yields is of the area actually used on Farm No. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. Journal of Farm Economics This data can be viewed for other countries and regions by selecting ‘ The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013).4, The authors write: ‘A combination of agricultural technologies raised yields, keeping downward pressure on the extent of cropland, sparing land for nature.Countering the global rise of population and affluence by parents and workers, consumers and farmers restrained the expansion of arable land by changing tastes and lifting yields. The absolute growth rate is the slope of the curve. Expansion of cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Example 1. This is an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed. In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats). values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. Grain yield is dependent, therefore, upon several aspects of the develop­ mental morphology of the plant. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. OUP is the world's largest university press with the widest global presence. Have we achieved this through land expansion or improved yields? The economic yield is a fraction of dry matter produced; the harvest index forms a useful measure of crop yield potential. 1. Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. Economic yield HI = x 100 Total biological yield In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. Moreover, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu, the yield we estimated would be 40 bu/acre (1097/27.215) or 40 bushels per acre. Approaches to benchmark yield and quantify yield gaps 23 4.1. If the actual and theoretical yield are the same, the percent yield is 100%. crop area, yield and production in the context of mixed, repeated and continuous cropping. Online here. 2010 In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. in maximising yield of pulse crops. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013). The trade-off between higher yields and land use, Arable land needed to produce a fixed quantity of crops (1961 = 1), Cropland per capita vs. population density, Global agricultural land use by major crop type, Global land spared as a result of cereal yield improvements, Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type, Land use per unit protein by food and production system, Land use vs. yield change in cereal production, Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland, Projections for global peak agricultural land. A simple method to estimate harvest index in grain crops Armen R. Kemaniana,*, Claudio O. Sto¨ckleb,1, David R. Hugginsc,2, Luis M. Viegad,3 a Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Temple, TX 76502, USA b Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA c USDA-ARS, Washington State … • Allometric models: define a mathematical relation between plant morphological characteristics and crop yield. Am accessible overview of the history of corn can be found here. Crop load adjustment: Practices that either enhance the yield per vine (such as increased water or nitrogen application from bloom to véraison) or decrease the yield per vine (such as reduction in water after fruit set, or actively removing fruit prior to harvest). Reasons for this can include incomplete or competing reactions and loss of sample during recovery. In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). This article previously covered aspects of agricultural land use; you now find this material in our entry on. Although there are a few exceptions–notably across Sub-Saharan Africa, the continued increase in cereal yields across the world has been the major driver of total cereal production. As we see, average corn yields in the United States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s. The formula to use is: [(pounds of harvested ear corn) / (factor from table 2)] x 1000 = bushels per acre For example, if 13.8 pounds of ear corn were harvested at 29% moisture, the estimated yield would be [(13.8 ÷ 86.7) x 1,000] = 159 bushels per acre This visualization shows the index of the arable land area needed to produce an equivalent aggregate of crop production, relative to the land area needed in 1961 i.e. The origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature. This process of cross-breeding between open-pollinated varieties, combined with improved breed selection practices is thought to define the key turning point in US corn yields.1, In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Desirable attributes of models in yield gap studies 18 3.3.2. However, if global average cereal yields were to have remained at their 1961 levels, we see the amount of additional land (in blue) which we would have had to convert to arable land if we were to achieve the same levels of cereal production. First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. Modelling yield within the context of a cropping system 22 4. Since the turn of the millennium however, cereal yields in the UK have been relatively stagnant. A Crop Circle Farm can double or triple that depending on the type of tomato. Determine the theoretical yield of the formation of geranyl formate from 375 g of geraniol. There are a number of factors which are likely to have contributed to sustained yield gains: fertilizer application, irrigation, increased soil tillage, and improved farming practices. 4 Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Approach 1: high-yielding fields, experimental stations and 23 growers contests 4.1.1. All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. The LER interaction (Table is the ratio of land required by pure (sole) crop to produce the same yield as that of intercrop was determined according to the following formula: Intercropped com LER = Y CB in mixed stand + Y MZ for monitoring crop condition and forecasting yield (Brown et al., 2008). Vol.40 no.1 Santiago Apr. Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. Overall, we see that improvements in cereal yields from the 19th century into the first half of the 20th century were relatively slow– by the 1940s, yields were typically in the range of 2-2.5 tonnes per hectare. Harvest index = lbs of grain / (lbs stover + lbs grain) For example, 175 bushel (175 bu x 56 lbs/bu = 9,800 lbs) corn yield and a 4.5 ton (4.5 ton x 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,000 lbs) stover yield would result in a harvest index of: For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). 7.2), can readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties. 2013. Ratings range 0 to 100. Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. • Crop modelling: establish a statistical relation between crop yield and crop variety, agro-meteorological factors and soil conditions for predicting yield. Recently, agricultural technologies which increase food production sustainably at the same t… Dr. Halmi, you may look for CPI (Crop Productivity Index), an index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against that of another over a period of time. ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). We see UK yields in sugar beet and potatoes tend to have much higher yields than cereal crops by mass (although they are likely to have a much higher percentage of water weight). For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. In the chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961. crops grown here are yam, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, soybeans, groundnut and cassava. Request Permissions. SPI) for the study period. 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