Here in Yecheng, Yuecheng and Jinling Yi, both Cheng and Yi mean city. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}32°03′00″N 118°46′00″E / 32.05°N 118.766667°E / 32.05; 118.766667, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Population of Nanking in December of 1937, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Population of capital city and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants", Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs, National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Finance & Economics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications,, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 317 - Capital of Eastern Jin Dynasty relocated to, 1381 - Imperial University campus relocated to. Jinling cuisine is famous for its meticulous process, emphasizing no added preservatives and its seasonality. [19] This city would soon play a vital role in the following centuries. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. In recent years, many night-life options have opened up in Catherine Park as well as in shopping malls such as IST in Xinjiekou and Kingmo near Baijai Lake metro station. Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. Nanjing also has professional opera troupes for the Yang, Yue (shaoxing), Xi and Jing (Chinese opera varieties) as well as Suzhou pingtan, spoken theater and puppet theater. The Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games featured all 28 sports on the Olympic program and were held from 16 to 28 August. The rebellion destroyed most of the former Ming imperial buildings in the city, including the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing. "Jiangning" redirects here. This means the two pronunciations Jing and Jin in Mandarin Chinese pronounce the same in Nanjing dialect, and king and kin are also the same. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II is a bestselling 1997 non-fiction book written by Iris Chang about the 1937–1938 Nanking Massacre, the massacre and atrocities committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after it captured Nanjing, then capital of … Other museums include the City Museum of Nanjing in the Chaotian Palace, the Oriental Metropolitan Museum,[g] the China Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall, the Taiping Kingdom History Museum, Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum,[h] Nanjing Yunjin Museum, Nanjing City Wall Cultural Museum, Nanjing Customs Museum in Ganxi House,[i] Nanjing Astronomical History Museum, Nanjing Paleontological Museum, Nanjing Geological Museum, Nanjing Riverstones Museum, and other museums and memorials such Zheng He Memorial[j] Jinling Four Modern Calligraphers Memorial.[k]. The Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organizing Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. Jinling City, 333 BCE), Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000), Former Central Committee of KMT Buildings (, Nanking Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road (, Former Republic of China Military Academy Buildings (, Former Bank of China Nanking Branch Building (, Former Bank of Communications Nanking Branch Building (, Former Central Bank of ROC Nanking Branch Building (, Former Macklin Hospital Buildings (Gulou Hospital) (, Aviation Martyrs of WWII Memorial Cemetery (, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 19:47. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million. The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass rape and murder committed by the Japanese troops against the residents of Nanking, then the capital of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The city normally held about 250,000 people, but by the mid-1930s its population had swollen to more than 1 million. Nanjing High-tech Industrial Development Zone established. [54], As the center of the empire, early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections. Nanking: A Historical Background. [127] The port area is 98 km (61 mi) in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000. The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China in January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president and Nanjing was selected as its new capital. [44] The present-day City Wall of Nanjing was mainly built during that time and today it remains in good condition and has been well preserved. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. Archaeological discovery shows that "Nanjing Man" lived more than 500 thousand years ago. In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD, as well as in and around major residential areas throughout the city. [141] Jiangsu Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China top level league, CBA. The old Mission property would become the No. Home » History of Nanking Massacre. [94] Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00 pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing to other Jiangsu cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station. Both the Qing viceroy and the Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace. [24] According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495 BC. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Blossom Hill, the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. [16][17][18][19] Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317–589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421);[20] and the Republic of China under the nationalist Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War. During this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia. His successor, the Hongxi Emperor, wished to revert the relocation of the imperial capital from Nanjing to Beijing that had happened during the Yongle reign. The massacre occurred over a six-week period starting on December … The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent, lower than the national average (4.3 percent). The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, Nanjing has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. During this boom, Nanjing reputedly became one of the most modern cities in China. The invading Japanese ran over Nanking, which was the capital of China at that time, butchering at least 300,000 Chinese civilians and raping 20,000 to 80,000 women. [95] The smog dissipated 12 December. The Imperial Japanese Army Forces, across six weeks, stormed the city of Nanking and savagely murdered and raped thousands of civilians and soldiers. Big state-owned firms include Panda Electronics, Yangzi Petrochemical, Jinling Petrochemical, Nanjing Chemical, Jincheng Motors, Jinling Pharmaceutical, Chenguang and NARI. Nanjing Massacre, conventional Nanking Massacre, also called Rape of Nanjing, (December 1937–January 1938), mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. Nanjing has many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index. As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor. Most of Nanjing's major theaters are multi-purpose, used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theaters on different occasions. Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport NKG, serves both national and international flights. Jiangsu Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China like the historical Master Ho-Kan;[133] many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery, also have their own special exhibitions. | Yoshida, Takashi | ISBN: 9780195180961 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The area around Nanjing is called Xiajiang (下江, Downstream River) region, with Jianghuai dominant in the northern part and Jiangzhe dominant in the southern part. The British Royal Navy operated the China Station under Rear Admiral Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt and the United States Navy the Yangtze Patrol; both lasted for around 80 y… [69] It had been visited by the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of times on their tours of the southern provinces. Nanjing Library, founded in 1907, houses more than 10 million volumes of printed materials and is the third largest library in China, after the National Library in Beijing and Shanghai Library. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Nanjing was a place where poets gathered and composed poems reminiscent of its luxurious past; during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the city was the official imperial examination center (Jiangnan Examination Hall) for the Jiangnan region, again acting as a hub where different thoughts and opinions converged and thrived. All three are significant players economically and politically, Beijing and Shanghai particularly. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education program focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. [23] In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita (current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), an 11 percent increase from 2012. Traditionally Nanjing's nightlife was mostly centered around Nanjing Fuzimiao (Confucius Temple) area along the Qinhuai River, where night markets, restaurants and pubs thrived. „Metropole der zehn Dynastien“ (十朝都會  /  十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì). The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. The airport is connected by a 29-kilometer (18 mi) highway directly to the city center, and is also linked to various intercity highways, making it accessible to the passengers from the surrounding cities. [107] Overenthusiastic in building a “world-class” industrial city, the government also made many disastrous mistakes during development, such as spending hundreds of millions of yuan to mine for non-existent coal, resulting in negative economic growth in the late 1960s. The local cuisine in Nanjing is called Jinling cuisine (金陵菜) or Jingsu cuisine (京苏菜); it is part of Jiangsu province's cuisine. Nach der Schlacht verübten die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker von Nanking zahlreiche Kriegsverbrechen an der chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung. Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009.[109]. [53], A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it. The following decade is known as the Nanking decade. Sun Yat-sen once summarized and lauded the feature of Nanjing in his book The International Development of China (建國方略): Nanking was the old capital of China before Peking, and is situated in a fine locality which comprises high mountains, deep water and a vast level plain—a rare site to be found in any part of the world. Nanjing Railway Station was first built in 1968. [77] The city itself was also severely damaged during the massacre. THE AWAKENING OF CHINA: 1793–1949. It has many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. 10 November: City besieged by Manchu forces. (Buch (gebunden)) - portofrei bei Nankin Jiken. [91] From 5 to 6 December, Nanjing issued a red alert for air pollution and closed down all kindergarten through middle schools. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China. It is the capital of the Jiangsu Province in Eastern China, and a port on the Yangtze River. It suffered severe atrocities in both conflicts, such as the Nanjing massacre. [f], Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou to the southeast. Nanjing is an important railway hub in eastern China. Along with Chongqing and Wuhan, Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnaces" along the Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime. [14] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. By late 1949, the PLA was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet and Hainan Island were left. Nanjing is ranked the 88th QS Best Student City in 2019. Because the foreign interests in China were largely American and European, squadrons of foreign naval vessels were stationed along the Yangtze to protect their citizens doing business at the treaty ports. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. The city is renowned for its wide variety of architectures which mainly contain buildings from multiple dynasties, the Republic of China, and the present. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion's catastrophe. Since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times. [46] The Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402. Tunnel, Fifth Nanjing Yangtze Bridge. [29], A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived (in various degrees of preservation) in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37 percent in March to 52 percent in August, the city receives 1,926 hours of bright sunshine annually. [97] Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.[98]. Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station and Nanjing South Railway Station, while other stations like Nanjing West Railway Station, Zhonghuamen Railway Station and Xianlin Railway Station serve minor roles. [56][57] His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty. Vaughan, C. Edwin. [41] According to Odoric of Pordenone, Chilenfu (Nanjing) had 360 stone bridges, which were finer than anywhere else in the world. [134] The museum is notable for enormous collections of Ming and Qing imperial porcelain, which is among the largest in the world. [87], A dense wave of smog began in the central and east parts of China on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 km (750 mi),[89] including Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai and Zhejiang. In ancient times the area was known as, A small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral, 100 National Key Universities are universities of. [45] It is among the longest surviving city walls in China. It also lies at the center of a very rich country on both sides of the lower Yangtze. At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing is "People's Government of Nanjing City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC, with the CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary. The major theaters include the People's Convention Hall and the Nanjing Arts and Culture Center. On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing. [128] Nanjing is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing as the leading port in the region. [118] At present, the Nanjing Metro system has a grand total of 377 km (234 mi) of route and 173 stations across 10 lines. [99], At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8.005 million. * Indicates this city has already occurred above. Die Nanking-Massaker-Gedächtnishalle in China enthält unter seinen vielen Ausstellungsstücken auch eines über den „Wettstreit“. In the 1960s, the first Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze in eastern China at that time. When was Nanjing founded? 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